All Posts tagged Type 2 diabetes

Vitamin K update

According to the Centers for Disease Control, one in three Americans will develop diabetes by 2050, particularly type 2 diabetes. New research suggests vitamin K may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, perhaps by as much as 51%.

Vitamin K is found naturally in deep green foods like broccoli and Brussels sprouts, the less common Japanese fermented food natto is one of the best sources of this vitamin. A vitamin K deficiency is rare, according to The University of Maryland Medical center, because most people get enough from food and “in addition to being found in leafy green foods, the bacteria in your intestines can make vitamin K.”

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition printed a study from Spanish researchers who looked at data involving over 1,000 men and women around age 67. At the beginning of the study, no one had type 2 diabetes. At the conclusion of the study 131 people had developed it. Participants who developed type 2 diabetes had significantly less vitamin K at the beginning of the study. By deductive logic, researchers found that for every additional 100 mcg each participant had per day, his or her risk was decreased by 17%. Participants with the highest intake averaged a 51% reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. “We conclude that dietary phylloquinone [a form of vitamin k] intake is associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes,” they said.

University of Maryland Medical Center. (2013). Vitamin K. Retrieved June 26, 2013 from http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/vitamin-k

Ibarrola-Jurado, N., Salas-Salvadó, J., Martínez-González, M.A., Bulló, M. (2012) Dietary Phylloquinone Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Elderly Subjects at High Risk of Cardiovascular Disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.033498

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Selenium helps reduce type 2 diabetes

Increased levels of selenium in the body may be associated with a 25% reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes.

Data from 3,630 women and 3,535 men indicated that increasing levels of selenium in toenails were associated with lower risks of diabetes, with the relationship appearing to be linear, according to findings published in Diabetes Care.

Selenium is an antioxidant has multifarious roles including building heart muscles and healthy sperm. Moderate deficiency in selenium may have long-term detrimental effects (FASEB Journal 25:1793-1814, 2011).

Over the course of the study the researchers documented 780 new cases of type 2 diabetes. The highest average levels of selenium (Se) in toenails were associated with a 24% reduction in the risk of the disease.

“At dietary levels of intake, individuals with higher toenail Se levels are at a lower risk for [type 2 diabetes],” they concluded.

Diabetes Care 35(7):1544-1551, 2012

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Type 2 Diabetes & Statin Use

Last year, University of Glasgow researchers examined the results of 13 large statin trials that included more than 91,000 subjects.  Results showed that for every 255 patients treated with statins for four years, one would develop type 2 diabetes, apparently as a consequence of statin use.

About 20 million people take statins in the U.S. So, one case of type 2 diabetes for every 255 patients comes to well over 78,000 people who will develop or already have developed diabetes as a statin side effect. (And you can forget about the “four years” business because statin users are users-for-life.) 

For high cholesterol, I advocate therapeutic lifestyle changes – diet, nutrition & exercise. This is my first line of therapy for clients with high cholesterol and/or Type 2 Diabetes. First, lets see if we can control it with medical foods such as UltraMeal by Metagenics along with diet and exercise. I see statins being prescribed with resultant cases of muscle damage, kidney damage, liver damage, and cognition damage. We should put a stop to statin overuse, and prescribe the drug when appropriate and for the right reasons.

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Magnesium, weightloss & type 2 diabetes

Magnesium helps maintain normal insulin levels. So, there’s no way you’re going to prevent or successfully manage type 2 diabetes with a low magnesium level. 

In a new study from Brazil, researchers evaluated magnesium status in type 2 diabetics. They found that poor kidney function (common in diabetes) increases magnesium elimination in the urine. When too much elimination is combined with low magnesium intake, blood sugar runs high.

Menstruation and high stress also reduce magnesium levels. And a heavy intake of starches, alcohol, diuretics and some prescription drugs (such as antibiotics) can increase urinary elimination of magnesium. 

Here is what you need to know: For people who are not very strict about the paleo diet, alcohol contributes to Mg depletion, so those who enjoy a glass of wine on a regular basis may have a higher need for Mg supplementation. Apparently diet sodas, particular colas, also deplete Mg.  If depleted Mg increases insulin resistance, this could help to explain why diet sodas seem to cause weight gain, even though studies of their direct action on insulin release have been equivocal. It’s very easy to fall into diet soda addiction. I haven’t generally found that it causes weight gain, but I do notice that clients may have trouble losing weight if they drink too much of the diet soda.

As a general principle, then, since insulin resistance is the engine of Metabolic Syndrome, it’s worth spreading the word that Mg supplementation may help.

Current  recommendations are 500 mg of magnesium per day, with the added note that magnesium gluconate and chelated magnesium are the preferred supplement forms. And if you want to try to get the magnesium you need from your diet, some of the best sources are leafy green vegetables, avocados, nuts, and whole grains.

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Type 2 diabetics & diet

I have a lot of  Type 2 diabetic patients who are looking for ways to control it better. I have seen consistently good results with  low-carb Paleo diets.

I hear lots of  stories from patients who have total cholesterol around 200 – 250. There GP doctors want them to go on cholesterol lowering meds. I am not in favor of this because from what I read, higher cholesterol is associated with increased longevity (lowest all-cause mortality and not just on cardiovascular mortality) especially in women.

People need to understand that cholesterol doesn’t cause heart disease; inflammation does and this is how statins, when they work, work. When I get clients on an anti-inflammatory diet (no sugar, grains, legumes,  and  the right oils) and using UltraInflamX or UltraMeal by Metagenics  it simply allows the body to go back to its natural, non-inflammatory state.

There are some pretty powerful statements made about this topic such as the ASCOT study, the largest randomized clinical study of statin effectiveness in women, found that the women who took Lipitor, developed more heart attacks than women in the group given placebo.  In this ASCOT study, 2,000 women were included among 10,000 patients having elevated blood pressure and at least three other cardiovascular risk factors.

Statins have only been shown statistically beneficial to men who have had a previous coronary event (statins reduce the rate of subsequent events).  This is why I’m still a believer in using UltraInflamX or UltraMeal along with diet recommendations.

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    New understandings about adult protein needs

    This article substaniates why I recommend OptiCleanse GHI from Xymogen & UltraMeal from Metagenics as important protein shakes

    Donald K Layman  Department of Food Science & Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA

    Nutrition & Metabolism 2009, 6:12doi:10.1186/1743-7075-6-12

    The developing controversy about Dietary Guidelines for protein stems from current perceptions that protein intakes above minimum requirements have no benefit and may pose long-term health risks. These beliefs are largely based on assumptions and extrapolations with little foundation in nutrition science. Diets with increased protein have now been shown to improve adult health with benefits for treatment or prevention of obesity, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, heart disease, and sarcopenia [14]. 

    During the past decade a growing body of research reveals that dietary protein intakes above the RDA are beneficial in maintaining muscle function and mobility [6] and in the treatment of diseases including obesity, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), heart disease, and sarcopenia [14]. The new research establishes health benefits and provides molecular evidence of numerous metabolic outcomes associated with protein intake or amino acid metabolism that are not reflected in the traditional measure of nitrogen balance. These outcomes include cell signaling via leucine [7,8], satiety [9,10], thermogenesis [11], and glycemic control [12,13]. The dietary protein necessary to optimize each of these metabolic outcomes is not reflected in measures of nitrogen balance and is not represented within the current concept of the minimum RDA. So what is known and what is missing in current Dietary Guidelines?

    The efficiency of protein utilization decreases throughout adult life [6]. During aging, there is an increase in the requirement for EAA to produce a positive response in muscle protein synthesis [16,17]. The need for total protein may not change, but the effectiveness of amino acids to stimulate muscle (and probably bone) protein metabolism decreases requiring either more total protein or greater nutrient density of EAA/total protein (i.e. protein quality). The change in efficiency of EAA use appears to be associated with the loss of anabolic drive for development of lean tissue [18]. During growth, the body has a high metabolic priority for structural development of muscle and bone driven by anabolic hormones including insulin, growth hormone, IGF-1 and steroid hormones. Further, physical activity has a positive effect on the efficiency of use of amino acids [19]. Muscle protein synthesis is stimulated by stretching and resistance activity. The converse is also true; a sedentary lifestyle reduces the efficiency of EAA use. After approximately age 30 y, the anabolic drive is lost; basal levels of hormones become largely ineffective in stimulating protein synthesis in structural tissues; and diet quality and physical activity become the limiting factors for maintaining optimal protein turnover for repair, remodeling, and recovery.

    In summary, omissions in current understanding of dietary protein needs are that 1) nitrogen balance and amino acid oxidation are only useful for defining minimum protein requirements and not optimum amino acid needs, 2) protein requirement is proportional to body weight and inversely proportional to energy intake, and 3) adults need more EAA than children to maintain the efficiency of protein turnover in structural tissues.

    New knowledge about protein

    Protein and amino acids contribute to multiple metabolic roles …Dietary protein influences cell signaling, satiety, thermogenesis and glycemic regulations and each of these roles is initiated by increases in plasma and intracellular amino acid concentrations. 

    Most adults consume less than 10 g of protein at breakfast [23,24] (Figure 1). In children and young adults, uneven meal distribution of protein appears not to adversely affect growth. The anabolic drive maintains high efficiency of protein use for nitrogen retention even when daily protein is consumed as a single large meal. However in older adults, the quantity and quality of protein at individual meals is important. Adults require a minimum of 15 g of EAA or at least 30 g of total protein to fully stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis [21,25]. This response appears to be determined by the EAA leucine which serves as a critical signal for triggering initiation of muscle protein synthesis. Leucine has been well characterized as a unique regulator of the insulin-mTOR signal pathway controlling synthesis of muscle proteins [7,8]. In children and young adults, this signal pathway is regulated by insulin and dietary energy while leucine regulates the pathway in adults [26]. Current dietary patterns that provide adequate protein or leucine at only one meal produce an anabolic response only after that meal (Figure 1). This is a critical factor for protection of lean tissues during weight loss or to prevent age-related sarcopenia and osteoporosis.

    Figure 1. Protein distribution at meals. A) Ingestion of 90 grams of protein, distributed evenly at 3 meals. B) Ingestion of 90 grams of proteins unevenly distributed throughout the day. Stimulating muscle protein synthesis to a maximal extent during the meals shown in Figure 1A is more likely to provide a greater 24 hour protein anabolic response than the unequal protein distribution in Figure 1B. (Adapted from Paddon-Jones & Rassmussen Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2009, 12: 86–90.)

    The meal content of protein is also a key factor for satiety and appetite regulation [9,10]. Protein has greater satiety value than either carbohydrates or fats and reduces food intake at subsequent meals [27]. Studies of energy regulation for weight management show that replacing carbohydrates with protein reduces daily energy intake by ~200 kcal [9]. The mechanism for this satiety effect may be mediated by intestinal hormones or by reducing peak post-prandial insulin response. While the mechanism remains to be elucidated, it is clear that the improved satiety response requires >30 g of protein at a meal and that breakfast has the greatest impact on total daily energy intake [27]. As with protein turnover in muscle and bone, limiting protein intake to a single large meal late in the day reduces the satiety benefits of dietary protein [22].

    The most unequivocal evidence for the benefit of increased dietary protein is derived from studies of weight management [1,28,29]. Diets with increased protein have been shown to be highly beneficial during weight loss because of their ability to correct body composition and increase satiety and thermogenesis. Higher protein diets increase loss of body weight and body fat and attenuate loss of lean tissue when compared with commonly recommended high carbohydrate low fat low protein diets [28,30]. Clearly, the major factors accounting for weight loss are the magnitude of energy restriction and individual compliance. Any diet can produce weight loss. However, long-term success with weight loss relates to maintenance of metabolically active lean tissues and research has proven that higher protein diets protect muscle and bone during weight loss. Use of conventional high carbohydrate, low fat, low protein diets results in 30% to 40% loss of lean tissue mass. Use of higher protein diets reduces lean tissue loss to <15% and when combined with exercise can halt loss of lean tissue during weight loss [3032]. Studies also show that moderate protein diets have better long-term compliance.

    The effects of protein for maintaining lean tissues appear to translate into health benefits during aging where progressive loss of structural strength and mobility are critical factors. Osteoporosis and sarcopenia have emerged as major issues during aging [2,3]. Prevention of osteoporosis is associated with physical activity and dietary calcium and protein [3]. The efficacy of calcium and protein are interrelated [3]. Calcium supplements are largely ineffective for remodeling of bone matrix if protein is limiting. Positive effects of calcium appear to require intakes of protein >1.2 g/kg to have beneficial effects. The long-held belief that increased dietary protein could cause bone loss as reflected in increase urinary calcium is incorrect [33] and protein is now recognized to increase intestinal calcium absorption in addition to enhancing bone matrix turnover [34].

    Similar results have been observed with studies of muscle health in elderly where the efficiency of EAA use is reduced [16,17]. The level of EAA required to stimulate muscle protein synthesis is increased in part due to reduced anabolic stimulus of hormones.

    Early research with MetS evaluated reducing dietary carbohydrates with fats [36]. While increasing dietary fats improved glycemic control and reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, the prospect of increasing dietary fat remains controversial. Replacement of carbohydrates with protein improves glycemic control measured as reduced post-prandial hyperinsulinemia [37] and in T2DM corrects hyperglycemia and HbA1c [13]. Equally important, reduced carbohydrate diets have decreased TAG, increased HDL and increased LDL particle size (i.e. LDL-C/ApoB) improving the dyslipidemia commonly associated with T2DM and MetS [4]. These conditions are 4-times more important for heart disease and all cause mortality than elevated cholesterol or LDL concentration [38].

    New understandings about protein for the Dietary Guidelines

    • Protein is a critical part of the adult diet

    Protein should be a central part of a complete diet for adults. While physical growth occurs only for a brief period of life, the need to repair and remodel muscle and bone continues throughout life. Protein needs become more important during periods of reduced food intake such as weight loss or during periods of recovery after illness or during aging.

    • Protein needs are proportional to body weight; NOT energy intake

    Protein needs for adults relate to body weight. The acceptable protein range is 10% to 35% of total energy. However, protein needs are constant across all energy intakes. So at low energy intakes, protein needs to be a higher percentage of total calories and at high energy intakes protein can be reduced as a percentage of total calories. In general, dietary protein should be established first in any diet in proportion to body weight and then carbohydrates and fats added determined by energy needs.

    • Optimal adult protein use is a function of intake at individual meals

    Protein is an important part of good nutrition at every meal. Vitamins and minerals can fulfill nutrient needs on a once-per-day basis but for protein the body has no ability to store a daily supply. To maintain healthy muscles and bones for adults, at least 30 g of protein should be consumed at more than one meal. Breakfast is an important meal for dietary protein because the body is in a catabolic state after an overnight fast. A meal with at least 30 g of protein is required to initiate repletion of body proteins. Protein at breakfast is also critical for regulation of appetite and daily food intake.

    • Most adults benefit from protein intakes above the minimum RDA

    Aging populations confront increasing incidence of obesity, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, heart disease, and sarcopenia which have raised new questions about dietary ratios of carbohydrates, fats, and protein for life-long health. The RDA represents the minimum daily intake for active healthy adults. For most adults, replacing some dietary carbohydrates with protein will help to maintain body composition and mobility, improve blood lipids and lipoproteins, and help to control food intake.

    References

    1. Paddon-Jones D, Westman E, Mattes RD, Wolfe RR, Astrup A, Westerterp-Plantenga M: Protein, weight management, and satiety. Am J Clin Nutr 2008 , 87:1558S-1561S. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text Return to text

       

    2. Paddon-Jones D, Short KR, Campbell WW, Volpi E, Wolfe RR: Role of dietary protein in the sarcopenia of aging. Am J Clin Nutr 2008 , 87:1562S-1566S. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text

      aney RP, Layman DK: Amount and type of protein influences bone health.

    3. Am J Clin Nutr 2008 , 87:1567S-1570S. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURLReturn to text

       

    4. Layman DK, Clifton P, Gannon MC, Krauss RM, Nuttall FQ: Protein in optimal health: heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

    Am J Clin Nutr 2008 , 87:1571S-1575S. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Munro HN, Crim MC: The protein and amino acids. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease 7th edition. Edited by: Shils ME, Young VR. 1988 , 1-37. OpenURL

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  • Wolfe RR: The underappreciated role of muscle in health and disease.
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  • Kimball SR, Jefferson LS: Regulation of protein synthesis by branched-chain amino acids. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2001 , 4:39-43. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Layman DK: The role of leucine in weight loss diets and glucose homeostasis.
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  • Schoeller DA, Buchholz AC: Energetics of obesity and weight control: does diet composition matter? J Am Diet Assoc 2005 , 105:S24-S28. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Weigle DS, Breen PA, Matthys CC, Callahan HS, Meeuws KE, Burden VR, et al.: A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations.
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  • Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Rolland V, Wilson SAJ, Westerterp KR: Satiety related to 24-h diet-induced thermogenesis during high protein/carbohydrate vs high fat diets measured in a respiratory chamber. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999 , 53:495-502. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Layman DK, Baum JI: Dietary protein impact on glycemic control during weight loss.
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  • Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ, Saeed A, Jordan K, Hoover H: An increase in dietary protein improves the blood glucose response in persons with type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2003 , 78:734-41. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids. Washington DC: National Academy Press; 2002.
  • Millward DJ: Macronutrient intakes as determinants of dietary protein and amino acid adequacy.
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  • Volpi E, Sheffield-Moore M, Rasmussen BB, Wolfe RR: Basal muscle amino acid kinetics and protein synthesis in healthy young and older men. JAMA 2001 , 286:1206-1212. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Volpi E, Mittendorfer B, Rasmussen BB, Wolfe RR: The response of muscle protein anabolism to combined hyperaminoacidemia and glucose-induced hyperinsulinemia is impaired in the elderly.
  • J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000 , 85:4481-4490. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Millward DJ, Rivers JPW: The need for indispensable amino acids: the concept of the anabolic drive. Diabetes Metab Rev 1989 , 5(2):191-212. PubMed Abstract OpenURL

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  • Fujita S, Rasmussen BB, Cadenas JG, Drummond MJ, Glynn EL, Sattler FR, Volpi E: Aerobic exercise overcomes the age-related insulin resistance of muscle protein metabolism by improving endothelial function and Akt/mTOR signaling.
  • Diabetes 2007 , 56:1615-1622. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Arnal MA, Mosoni L, Boirie Y, Houlier ML, Morin L, Verdier E, Ritz P, Antoine JM, Prugnaud J, Beaufrere B, Mirand PP: Protein pulse feeding improves protein retention in elderly women. Am J Clin Nutr 1999 , 69:1202-1208. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Paddon-Jones D, Rasmussen BB: Dietary protein recommendations and the prevention of sarcopenia.
  • Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2009 , 12:86-90. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • de Castro JM: The time of day of food intake influences overall intake in humans. J Nutr 2004 , 134:104-111. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • USDA/NHANES [http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/12355000/pdf/Table_1_BIA.pdf] webcite
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  • USDA/NHANES [http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/12355000/pdf/Table_9_BIA.pdf] webcite
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  • Rasmussen BB, Tipton KD, Miller SL, Wolf SE, Wolfe RR: An oral essential amino acid-carbohydrate supplement enhances muscle protein anabolism after resistance exercise.
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  • Garlick PJ: The role of leucine in the regulation of protein metabolism. J Nutr 2005 , 135:1553S-1556S. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Rolls BJ, Hetherington M, Burley VJ: The specificity of satiety: The influence of foods of different macronutrient content on the development of satiety.
  • Physiol Behav 1988 , 43:145-153. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Krieger JW, Sitren HS, Daniels MJ, Langkamp-Henken B: Effects of variation in protein and carbohydrate intake on body mass and composition during energy restriction: a meta-regression. Am J Clin Nutr 2006 , 83:260-274. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Layman DK, Walker DA: Protein importance of leucine in treatment of obesity and the metabolic syndrome.
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  • Layman DK, Evans EM, Erickson D, Seyler J, Weber J, Bagshaw D, Griel A, Psota T, Kris-Etherton P: A moderate-protein diet produces sustained weight loss and long-term changes in body composition and blood lipids in obese adults. J Nutr 2009 , 139:514-21. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Layman DK, Boileau RA, Erickson DJ, Painter JE, Shiue H, Sather C, Christou DD: A reduced ratio of dietary carbohydrate to protein improves body composition and blood lipid profiles during weight loss in adult women.
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  • Layman DK, Evans E, Baum JI, Seyler J, Erickson DJ, Boileau RA: Dietary protein and exercise have additive effects on body composition during weight loss in adult women. J Nutr 2005 , 135:1903-1910. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Margen S, Chu J, Kaufmann N, Calloway D: Studies in calcium metabolism. 1. The calciuretic effect of dietary protein.
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  • Kerstetter J, O’Brien K, Insogna K: Dietary protein affects intestinal calcium absorption. Am J Clin Nutr 1998 , 68:859-65. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Houston DK, Nicklas BJ, Ding J, Harris TB, Tylavsky FA, Newman AB, Lee JS, Sahyoun NR, Visser M, Kritchevsky SB: Dietary protein intake is associated with lean mass change in older, community-dwelling adults: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study.
  • Am J Clin Nutr 2008 , 87:150-155. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Reaven GM: The metabolic syndrome: is this diagnosis necessary? Am J Clin Nutr 2006 , 83:1237-47. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Walker-Lasker DA, Evans EM, Layman DK: Moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein weight loss diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk compared to high carbohydrate, low protein diet in obese adults: A randomized clinical trial.
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  • Isomaa B, Almgren P, Tuomi T, Forsen B, Lahti K, Nissen M, Taskinen MR, Groop L: Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 2001 , 24:683-689. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text  
  • The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/content/6/1/12
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    Get More Sleep

    Sleep Deficit…
    Almost every patient I see, especially those in chronic pain are sleeping less than they should. Looking back, adults slept eight to nine hours a night in 1960. By 1995 that average was down to seven hours. And now the average is just over six-and-a-half hours.

    Television, the internet, and crazy work schedules keep us up too late at night. I recommend turning off your cell phones and “crack” berries around nine o’clock.

    In a poll of 7,000 people, 52 percent said they were losing sleep from stress. So even if you are in bed, you may not be sleeping the whole time.

    Did you know that too little sleep raises the risk of diabetes? One study showed that people with insomnia who slept five to six hours total had twice the risk of diabetes. In those who slept fewer than five hours the risk was almost three times greater than someone who gets a full seven to nine hours.

    Sleep problems and diabetes go hand in hand. More than half of all people with type 2 diabetes have some sort of sleep disorder such as sleep apnea. At the same time, almost 40 percent of people with sleep apnea have diabetes – as well as a much higher risk of developing diabetes. That’s a strong correlation between sleep and diabetes.

    People in their late 20s and early 30s who slept less than six-and-a-half hours a night had the insulin sensitivity of someone more than 60 years old.

    A group of young adults in their 20s were studied in a sleep lab. Each time they started to drift into slow-wave deep sleep, they were subjected to sounds that disrupted their sleep but didn’t fully wake them up. After three nights of decreasing their slow-wave sleep by 90 percent (comparable to the slow-wave sleep of someone in their 60s), they became 25 percent less sensitive to insulin. The result was a 23 percent raise in blood glucose – the equivalent of gaining 20 to 30 pounds.

    Sleep habits of 276 subjects were analyzed for a six-year period. 20 percent of those who slept less than seven hours or more than eight hours developed diabetes or impaired blood glucose. Only seven percent of those who slept between seven and eight hours developed blood glucose problems.

    Things to enhance a good night’s sleep:
    Don’t let pets sleep with you.
    Alcohol might make you drowsy to start with, but then it turns around and wakes you up. Stop drinking several hours before bedtime to skip that effect.
    Go to bed and get up at the same time each day, even on weekends.
    Have a regular relaxing bedtime routine. Taking a hot shower or bath, or reading a chapter of a book will help you get ready to sleep.
    Make sure your sleep environment is dark and comfortable. Keep your computer out of the bedroom. Use eye shades, ear plugs or “white noise” if it helps you stay asleep.
    If your mattress is more than ten years old, it’s time for a new one.
    Finish exercising several hours before bedtime. Body temperature goes up during exercise and takes a while to drop. Cooler body temperatures are needed to go to sleep.
    Don’t eat anything too heavy or spicy at bedtime.
    Restrict fluids late in the evening so you aren’t awakened later to go to the bathroom..

    Use your bedroom only for sleep and sex.

    Bensom is a natural fomrula by Metagenics that I recommend to promote a restful, relaxed state and relieve occasional sleeplessness. It contains Melatonin and Passionflower.

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