All Posts tagged protein

What do I think of carbo loading?

When I was in chiropractic college the trend was ‘carbo loading’ before an important race or physical event. Now the days of restricting carbs then bingeing on pasta are over. I recommend a steady diet of  carbs the week prior to a big race event. Glycogen—what a carbohydrate turns into in the body—fuels your muscles. I still think protein is the most important cast of characters; I don’t let carbs take center stage. However, my usual recommendation of 100-150 grams of carbs daily becomes three to five grams of carbs per day for each pound of your body weight (about 500 grams for a 150-pound marathoner) during the week before the event. I’m not just talking about  pasta and rice. Check out my organic food list, and enjoy quality yogurt, fruit,  and even chocolate milk for great carb sources. My favorite recommendation is the UltraMeal shakes from Metagenics. These shakes are a balance of carbs & protein. UltraMeal has great flavors and tastes like a treat once you know how to make a delicious shake.

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New understandings about adult protein needs

This article substaniates why I recommend OptiCleanse GHI from Xymogen & UltraMeal from Metagenics as important protein shakes

Donald K Layman  Department of Food Science & Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA

Nutrition & Metabolism 2009, 6:12doi:10.1186/1743-7075-6-12

The developing controversy about Dietary Guidelines for protein stems from current perceptions that protein intakes above minimum requirements have no benefit and may pose long-term health risks. These beliefs are largely based on assumptions and extrapolations with little foundation in nutrition science. Diets with increased protein have now been shown to improve adult health with benefits for treatment or prevention of obesity, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, heart disease, and sarcopenia [14]. 

During the past decade a growing body of research reveals that dietary protein intakes above the RDA are beneficial in maintaining muscle function and mobility [6] and in the treatment of diseases including obesity, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), heart disease, and sarcopenia [14]. The new research establishes health benefits and provides molecular evidence of numerous metabolic outcomes associated with protein intake or amino acid metabolism that are not reflected in the traditional measure of nitrogen balance. These outcomes include cell signaling via leucine [7,8], satiety [9,10], thermogenesis [11], and glycemic control [12,13]. The dietary protein necessary to optimize each of these metabolic outcomes is not reflected in measures of nitrogen balance and is not represented within the current concept of the minimum RDA. So what is known and what is missing in current Dietary Guidelines?

The efficiency of protein utilization decreases throughout adult life [6]. During aging, there is an increase in the requirement for EAA to produce a positive response in muscle protein synthesis [16,17]. The need for total protein may not change, but the effectiveness of amino acids to stimulate muscle (and probably bone) protein metabolism decreases requiring either more total protein or greater nutrient density of EAA/total protein (i.e. protein quality). The change in efficiency of EAA use appears to be associated with the loss of anabolic drive for development of lean tissue [18]. During growth, the body has a high metabolic priority for structural development of muscle and bone driven by anabolic hormones including insulin, growth hormone, IGF-1 and steroid hormones. Further, physical activity has a positive effect on the efficiency of use of amino acids [19]. Muscle protein synthesis is stimulated by stretching and resistance activity. The converse is also true; a sedentary lifestyle reduces the efficiency of EAA use. After approximately age 30 y, the anabolic drive is lost; basal levels of hormones become largely ineffective in stimulating protein synthesis in structural tissues; and diet quality and physical activity become the limiting factors for maintaining optimal protein turnover for repair, remodeling, and recovery.

In summary, omissions in current understanding of dietary protein needs are that 1) nitrogen balance and amino acid oxidation are only useful for defining minimum protein requirements and not optimum amino acid needs, 2) protein requirement is proportional to body weight and inversely proportional to energy intake, and 3) adults need more EAA than children to maintain the efficiency of protein turnover in structural tissues.

New knowledge about protein

Protein and amino acids contribute to multiple metabolic roles …Dietary protein influences cell signaling, satiety, thermogenesis and glycemic regulations and each of these roles is initiated by increases in plasma and intracellular amino acid concentrations. 

Most adults consume less than 10 g of protein at breakfast [23,24] (Figure 1). In children and young adults, uneven meal distribution of protein appears not to adversely affect growth. The anabolic drive maintains high efficiency of protein use for nitrogen retention even when daily protein is consumed as a single large meal. However in older adults, the quantity and quality of protein at individual meals is important. Adults require a minimum of 15 g of EAA or at least 30 g of total protein to fully stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis [21,25]. This response appears to be determined by the EAA leucine which serves as a critical signal for triggering initiation of muscle protein synthesis. Leucine has been well characterized as a unique regulator of the insulin-mTOR signal pathway controlling synthesis of muscle proteins [7,8]. In children and young adults, this signal pathway is regulated by insulin and dietary energy while leucine regulates the pathway in adults [26]. Current dietary patterns that provide adequate protein or leucine at only one meal produce an anabolic response only after that meal (Figure 1). This is a critical factor for protection of lean tissues during weight loss or to prevent age-related sarcopenia and osteoporosis.

Figure 1. Protein distribution at meals. A) Ingestion of 90 grams of protein, distributed evenly at 3 meals. B) Ingestion of 90 grams of proteins unevenly distributed throughout the day. Stimulating muscle protein synthesis to a maximal extent during the meals shown in Figure 1A is more likely to provide a greater 24 hour protein anabolic response than the unequal protein distribution in Figure 1B. (Adapted from Paddon-Jones & Rassmussen Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2009, 12: 86–90.)

The meal content of protein is also a key factor for satiety and appetite regulation [9,10]. Protein has greater satiety value than either carbohydrates or fats and reduces food intake at subsequent meals [27]. Studies of energy regulation for weight management show that replacing carbohydrates with protein reduces daily energy intake by ~200 kcal [9]. The mechanism for this satiety effect may be mediated by intestinal hormones or by reducing peak post-prandial insulin response. While the mechanism remains to be elucidated, it is clear that the improved satiety response requires >30 g of protein at a meal and that breakfast has the greatest impact on total daily energy intake [27]. As with protein turnover in muscle and bone, limiting protein intake to a single large meal late in the day reduces the satiety benefits of dietary protein [22].

The most unequivocal evidence for the benefit of increased dietary protein is derived from studies of weight management [1,28,29]. Diets with increased protein have been shown to be highly beneficial during weight loss because of their ability to correct body composition and increase satiety and thermogenesis. Higher protein diets increase loss of body weight and body fat and attenuate loss of lean tissue when compared with commonly recommended high carbohydrate low fat low protein diets [28,30]. Clearly, the major factors accounting for weight loss are the magnitude of energy restriction and individual compliance. Any diet can produce weight loss. However, long-term success with weight loss relates to maintenance of metabolically active lean tissues and research has proven that higher protein diets protect muscle and bone during weight loss. Use of conventional high carbohydrate, low fat, low protein diets results in 30% to 40% loss of lean tissue mass. Use of higher protein diets reduces lean tissue loss to <15% and when combined with exercise can halt loss of lean tissue during weight loss [3032]. Studies also show that moderate protein diets have better long-term compliance.

The effects of protein for maintaining lean tissues appear to translate into health benefits during aging where progressive loss of structural strength and mobility are critical factors. Osteoporosis and sarcopenia have emerged as major issues during aging [2,3]. Prevention of osteoporosis is associated with physical activity and dietary calcium and protein [3]. The efficacy of calcium and protein are interrelated [3]. Calcium supplements are largely ineffective for remodeling of bone matrix if protein is limiting. Positive effects of calcium appear to require intakes of protein >1.2 g/kg to have beneficial effects. The long-held belief that increased dietary protein could cause bone loss as reflected in increase urinary calcium is incorrect [33] and protein is now recognized to increase intestinal calcium absorption in addition to enhancing bone matrix turnover [34].

Similar results have been observed with studies of muscle health in elderly where the efficiency of EAA use is reduced [16,17]. The level of EAA required to stimulate muscle protein synthesis is increased in part due to reduced anabolic stimulus of hormones.

Early research with MetS evaluated reducing dietary carbohydrates with fats [36]. While increasing dietary fats improved glycemic control and reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, the prospect of increasing dietary fat remains controversial. Replacement of carbohydrates with protein improves glycemic control measured as reduced post-prandial hyperinsulinemia [37] and in T2DM corrects hyperglycemia and HbA1c [13]. Equally important, reduced carbohydrate diets have decreased TAG, increased HDL and increased LDL particle size (i.e. LDL-C/ApoB) improving the dyslipidemia commonly associated with T2DM and MetS [4]. These conditions are 4-times more important for heart disease and all cause mortality than elevated cholesterol or LDL concentration [38].

New understandings about protein for the Dietary Guidelines

• Protein is a critical part of the adult diet

Protein should be a central part of a complete diet for adults. While physical growth occurs only for a brief period of life, the need to repair and remodel muscle and bone continues throughout life. Protein needs become more important during periods of reduced food intake such as weight loss or during periods of recovery after illness or during aging.

• Protein needs are proportional to body weight; NOT energy intake

Protein needs for adults relate to body weight. The acceptable protein range is 10% to 35% of total energy. However, protein needs are constant across all energy intakes. So at low energy intakes, protein needs to be a higher percentage of total calories and at high energy intakes protein can be reduced as a percentage of total calories. In general, dietary protein should be established first in any diet in proportion to body weight and then carbohydrates and fats added determined by energy needs.

• Optimal adult protein use is a function of intake at individual meals

Protein is an important part of good nutrition at every meal. Vitamins and minerals can fulfill nutrient needs on a once-per-day basis but for protein the body has no ability to store a daily supply. To maintain healthy muscles and bones for adults, at least 30 g of protein should be consumed at more than one meal. Breakfast is an important meal for dietary protein because the body is in a catabolic state after an overnight fast. A meal with at least 30 g of protein is required to initiate repletion of body proteins. Protein at breakfast is also critical for regulation of appetite and daily food intake.

• Most adults benefit from protein intakes above the minimum RDA

Aging populations confront increasing incidence of obesity, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, heart disease, and sarcopenia which have raised new questions about dietary ratios of carbohydrates, fats, and protein for life-long health. The RDA represents the minimum daily intake for active healthy adults. For most adults, replacing some dietary carbohydrates with protein will help to maintain body composition and mobility, improve blood lipids and lipoproteins, and help to control food intake.

References

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  2. Paddon-Jones D, Short KR, Campbell WW, Volpi E, Wolfe RR: Role of dietary protein in the sarcopenia of aging. Am J Clin Nutr 2008 , 87:1562S-1566S. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text

    aney RP, Layman DK: Amount and type of protein influences bone health.

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  4. Layman DK, Clifton P, Gannon MC, Krauss RM, Nuttall FQ: Protein in optimal health: heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

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  • Munro HN, Crim MC: The protein and amino acids. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease 7th edition. Edited by: Shils ME, Young VR. 1988 , 1-37. OpenURL

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  • Layman DK: The role of leucine in weight loss diets and glucose homeostasis.
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  • Weigle DS, Breen PA, Matthys CC, Callahan HS, Meeuws KE, Burden VR, et al.: A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations.
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  • Layman DK, Baum JI: Dietary protein impact on glycemic control during weight loss.
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  • Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ, Saeed A, Jordan K, Hoover H: An increase in dietary protein improves the blood glucose response in persons with type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2003 , 78:734-41. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids. Washington DC: National Academy Press; 2002.
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  • Volpi E, Sheffield-Moore M, Rasmussen BB, Wolfe RR: Basal muscle amino acid kinetics and protein synthesis in healthy young and older men. JAMA 2001 , 286:1206-1212. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Volpi E, Mittendorfer B, Rasmussen BB, Wolfe RR: The response of muscle protein anabolism to combined hyperaminoacidemia and glucose-induced hyperinsulinemia is impaired in the elderly.
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  • Millward DJ, Rivers JPW: The need for indispensable amino acids: the concept of the anabolic drive. Diabetes Metab Rev 1989 , 5(2):191-212. PubMed Abstract OpenURL

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  • Fujita S, Rasmussen BB, Cadenas JG, Drummond MJ, Glynn EL, Sattler FR, Volpi E: Aerobic exercise overcomes the age-related insulin resistance of muscle protein metabolism by improving endothelial function and Akt/mTOR signaling.
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  • Paddon-Jones D, Rasmussen BB: Dietary protein recommendations and the prevention of sarcopenia.
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  • de Castro JM: The time of day of food intake influences overall intake in humans. J Nutr 2004 , 134:104-111. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • USDA/NHANES [http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/12355000/pdf/Table_1_BIA.pdf] webcite
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  • USDA/NHANES [http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/12355000/pdf/Table_9_BIA.pdf] webcite
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  • Garlick PJ: The role of leucine in the regulation of protein metabolism. J Nutr 2005 , 135:1553S-1556S. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Rolls BJ, Hetherington M, Burley VJ: The specificity of satiety: The influence of foods of different macronutrient content on the development of satiety.
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  • Krieger JW, Sitren HS, Daniels MJ, Langkamp-Henken B: Effects of variation in protein and carbohydrate intake on body mass and composition during energy restriction: a meta-regression. Am J Clin Nutr 2006 , 83:260-274. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Layman DK, Walker DA: Protein importance of leucine in treatment of obesity and the metabolic syndrome.
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  • Layman DK, Evans EM, Erickson D, Seyler J, Weber J, Bagshaw D, Griel A, Psota T, Kris-Etherton P: A moderate-protein diet produces sustained weight loss and long-term changes in body composition and blood lipids in obese adults. J Nutr 2009 , 139:514-21. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Layman DK, Boileau RA, Erickson DJ, Painter JE, Shiue H, Sather C, Christou DD: A reduced ratio of dietary carbohydrate to protein improves body composition and blood lipid profiles during weight loss in adult women.
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  • Layman DK, Evans E, Baum JI, Seyler J, Erickson DJ, Boileau RA: Dietary protein and exercise have additive effects on body composition during weight loss in adult women. J Nutr 2005 , 135:1903-1910. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Margen S, Chu J, Kaufmann N, Calloway D: Studies in calcium metabolism. 1. The calciuretic effect of dietary protein.
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  • Kerstetter J, O’Brien K, Insogna K: Dietary protein affects intestinal calcium absorption. Am J Clin Nutr 1998 , 68:859-65. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Houston DK, Nicklas BJ, Ding J, Harris TB, Tylavsky FA, Newman AB, Lee JS, Sahyoun NR, Visser M, Kritchevsky SB: Dietary protein intake is associated with lean mass change in older, community-dwelling adults: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study.
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  • Reaven GM: The metabolic syndrome: is this diagnosis necessary? Am J Clin Nutr 2006 , 83:1237-47. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

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  • Walker-Lasker DA, Evans EM, Layman DK: Moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein weight loss diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk compared to high carbohydrate, low protein diet in obese adults: A randomized clinical trial.
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  • Isomaa B, Almgren P, Tuomi T, Forsen B, Lahti K, Nissen M, Taskinen MR, Groop L: Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 2001 , 24:683-689. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text  
  • The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/content/6/1/12
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    Smelling food can trick your brain into thinking you’ve eaten

    This weightloss information appeared in the fitness section of MSNBC:

    If you want to lose weight should you suppress your appetite or increase your metabolism (the rate at which
    your body uses food for fuel)?  The answer is to eat the right foods at the right time.

    Most people go off a food plan at night (after dinner) when they feel the urge to nosh…so to curb your appetite tonight…. use these tips from the article:

    1. Protein First
    “Rise and shine with protein.”  But what does this have to do with night-time cravings? Everything. Set the body up to use your own fat-stores for fuel by eating protein in the morning and your appetite FOR fatty foods goes way down during the day and the night. Protein is “thermogenic”, meaning it helps increase your metabolism. It also acts as a natural appetite regulator.

    2. Grapefruit
    In a study at the Nutrition and Metabolic Research Center at the Scripps Clinic in San Diego, people who ate half a grapefruit with each meal lost an average of 3.6 pounds in three months. That doesn’t sound like a lot (and it isn’t) but that’s ALL they changed.
    Grapefruit makes for a good night time snack, especially if you have a few bites of lean protein with it.

    3. Use your nose & smell !
    This is a great trick. Smelling food can trick your brain into thinking you’ve eaten. A recent study found that those who inhaled peppermint in scent form every 2 hours at (get this) ate 2700 calories LESS per week than they normally did. If you decrease your calorie intake by just 2500 calories per week, that’s a fatloss of more than half a pound a week… from sniffing peppermint!

    Vanilla also works. You can keep vanilla-scented drops or candles around the house or office and take a sniff every few hours.

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    Paleo Diet & Weight Loss

    Fat loss starts with adequate protein. Over-consume protein, and minimize everything else. This is the one piece of advice I get the most resistance. If you can have some faith and try it, you’ll see how much easier it makes losing weight and achieveing a more youthful body.

    It’s one of the reason’s I like Cordain’s Paleo Diet. Cordain’s research and writings indicate that a contemporary diet that precisely mimics hunter-gatherer diets is “obviously impossible, as most of us don’t have unlimited access to wild game and plant foods.” However, Cordain’s studies indicate that “our health, well being and mental state improve, and we can emulate Ishi’s personality, psychological state and health” by consuming fresh fruits, vegetables, lean meats and seafood, as documented in his book The Paleo Diet. Dr. Cordain’s dietary recommendations in The Paleo Diet include avoiding processed foods, grains, refined sugars, refined vegetable oils, and salted foods.

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    “How do I boost my muscle size”

    You need to lift weights. Pick the size (weight in pounds or kilograms)) of a dumbell or kettlebell that you have difficulty completeing the 6th rep with. Do 3 sets of 6 reps. Lift weight 4 times per week and do cardio twice a week. More than simply lifting weights, you need to feed your muscles with quality protein and good nutrition. That means eating low carb (about 100-150 grams per day) and lots of green vegetables (no more than two fruits a day). You need to learn the crucial differences between ‘good’ and ‘bad’ fats – and how to make sure you avoid the ‘bad’ fat!

    To get the ‘micro-nutrients’ – the vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidants that are so crucial to building muscle mass given the additional stresses that weight training imposes on the body I recommend UltraMeal shakes. Use 2 scoops of the powder in water twice a day. Add 1 scoop of BioPure Protein to each shake.  This is the best program I have seen work over and over for my clients that want to lose fat and increase lean muscle mass.  

    Order UltraMeal & BioPure Protein from www.DrJeffreyTucker.meta-ehealth.com

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    Weight-Loss Rules that Work

    Here are the suggestions I hear myself telling clients about weight loss advice everyday.

    Don’t worry about fat, carbs are the culprit. Limit carbs to 100-150 grams per day. Get your Protein intake up to 100 grams a day for women and 120 grams for men. This number varies but I can be more exact if I can perform a Body Fat Analysis on you.

    I generally see better results with a low-carbohydrate plan. You still have to eat fewer calories than you burn if you want to lose weight. So the truth is, the perfect weight-loss diet is the one you can live with, whether you cut fat, carbs, or some combination.

    Just don’t cut protein. Protein-rich foods make you feel fuller. Snacks between meals are advised and should include protein. The most important meal is breakfast. In my opinion, the best food for breakfast is a whey (rice protein or soy protein is my second choice) protein shake. A daily breakfast shake made with two scoops of UltraMeal whey protein powder, a little fruit (fresh or frozen berries or a banana), and water or crushed ice will help you lose fat (not muscle). You can buy UltraMeal whey protein powder at my Metagenics link. Some clients have two or three shakes a day instead of lousy fast food meals.

    Animal proteins are fine. I encourage eggs. I am an ex-vegetarian and have been on both sides of the camp. Protein from animals increases thermogenesis more than vegetable proteins, so the best calorie-burning foods are lean meats. So eat some protein at each meal—build your dinner around lean chicken, beef, or pork. That way, you’re burning the most calories through digestion at the end of the day, when your metabolism is slower.

    Not only is it Ok to eat lots of meat, but dairy products as well.

    Restrict fructose-sweetened beverages and breads. Breads are just not going to work. A few are OK but you’ll have to email me separately for those name brands.

    Restrict potato chips and french fries.

    Include a lot of vege’s. Vege’s are fiber’s and when you have fiber in your stomach, food takes longer to enter the bloodstream, and your blood-sugar level stays steady. The benefits: You’ll have a more consistent energy supply and less between-meal hunger. Broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussel Sprouts, tomato, and salads are great examples. Eat lots of these with eat main meals and as a snack.

    Use Olive oil (which contains a cancer-fighting fat called beta-sitosterol) for dressings. I love to cook with coconut oil.

    You’ll need to take omega-3 polyunsaturated fats, which are found in fish, nuts, seeds, flaxseed and fish oils. (supplement with EPA-DHA 720, available at my Metagenics link).
    Omega-3 fats reduce inflammation throughout your body. That not only prevents heart attacks (inflammation in the tissues surrounding blood vessels is a major cause) but also helps your muscles recover faster from workouts I’ll be teaching you. If you don’t eat fish twice a week and can’t stomach fish-oil supplements, try eggs high in omega-3s, which are found in the dairy case, next to the regular eggs. You can eat 3-4 of them a day without any negative effect on your cholesterol levels.

    You must keep a food diary. The more honest you are, and the more detailed it is, the better. You can’t wing it and expect to see results.

    The best plan is likely to include these elements:

    • Meals and snacks are based on some lean protein source—fish, eggs, dairy, meat.

    • More meals are better than fewer. Five or six meals and snacks a day is ideal.

    • Low-fat and high-fat diets can both work, but one that cuts almost all fat is doomed.

    • Eat— no more than 2 per day of fruits, eat lots of vegetables, and a minimal amount of whole grains, nuts and seeds. Avoid potatoes (except Yukon gold & yams), pasta, rice, popcorn, and white bread.

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    Healthy Food Choices

    EGGS: The protein found in eggs has the highest “biological value” of protein — a measure of how well it supports your body’s protein need — of any food. In other words, the protein in eggs is more effective at building muscle than protein from other sources, even milk and beef. Eggs also contain vitamin B12, which is necessary for fat breakdown. Even during all those years eggs were considered bad for you, I never saw it that way. Eating an egg or two a day will not raise your cholesterol levels.

    BERRIES: Berries carry powerful levels of antioxidants: all-purpose compounds that help your body fight heart disease and cancer. The berries’ flavonoids may also help your eyesight, balance, coordination, and short-term memory. During the summer months plan on eating a cup of raspberries or blueberries a day. One cup has about 6 grams of fiber and more than half of your daily requirement of vitamin C.

    BEANS & LEGUMES: Pick whichever you like – Black, lima, pinto, navy. They are good protein, fiber and iorn sources, and low in fat. When people think of fiber they forget to think of beans as a great source.
    Researchers in Australia, Indonesia, and Sweden studied the diets of 400 elderly men and women, and found that those who ate the most leafy green vegetables and beans had the fewest wrinkles.

    SPINACH & OTHER GREEN VEGES: These foods have high nutrient content — especially vitamins A, C, and K; folate; beta-carotene; minerals including calcium and magnesium; fiber; and antioxidants. They have antioxidants and fiber that helps fill you up without loading you up with calories.
    Snack on more vegetables – period!

    TURKEY: Turkey breast is one of the leanest meats you’ll pick, and it packs nearly one-third of your daily requirements of niacin and vitamin B6. Dark meat, if you prefer, has lots of zinc and iron.

    PEANUT BUTTER: I know it’s high in calories but it has heart-healthy monounsaturated fats. For guys that means it can increase your body’s production of testosterone, which can help your muscles grow and your fat melt.
    Avoid “classic” peanut butters such as Jif and Skippy – they have added sugar and trans fats. Purchase all-natural butters with one ingredient: peanuts.

    EXTRA PROTEIN POWDER: I add BioPureProtein from Metagenics to my protein smoothie shakes. In conjunction with my UltraMeal powder (Metagenics) or FitFood (Xymogen), it is a total meal replacement. I’ll say it again, the most powerful fat-burning meal is high in protein and low in carbs. The UltraMeal powder and the BioPureProtein shakes are high-quality protein that contains essential amino acids that build muscle and burn fat. It’s simple, it has the highest amount of protein for the fewest number of calories.

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