All posts in Arthritis

Pulsed Electro Magnetic Field Therapy (PEMF)

I call PEMF therapy ‘Magnawaving’. PEMF has beneficial clinical evidence for:

  • The healing of non-union bone fractures (bone growth) (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
  • Cervical fusion patients that are high risk of non-fusion (1,5)
  • The treatment of depression and anxiety (transcranial magnetic therapy) (10)
  • Urinary incontinence and muscle stimulation. In one study, results were evaluated after 3 months. In 10 patients (7 post prostatectomy, 3 cystourethrocele) which were submitted to 18 sessions, twice a week, an improvement of incontinence in 75% of cases with patient compliance and the quality of life up to 100% also improved (11)

PEMF is gaining significant clinical importance and potential especially to someone like myself who is an ‘off label’ practitioner and ‘biohacker’. I’m able to demonstrate improvements (using a four lead body composition device) to my patient’s for hydration (intracellular and extracellular fluids) and the phase angle, which is a measurement of the body’s overall cell membrane health. Achieving proper hydration especially at the intracellular level is vital to good health especially if you are someone making slow progress.  

Can PEMF provide enhanced musculoskeletal healing and overall health (biohacking)? In my experience the answer is yes. Using high intensity pulsing electromagnetic fields safely passes through a cell membrane and ‘shock’ the structures within. PEMF could accelerate all phases of tissue repair, from initial pain and swelling to blood vessel growth, tissue regeneration, and remodeling. (6) The current thinking is that the primary effect of clinically relevant PEMF signals is to increase the rate of production of Nitric Oxide, which can orchestrate an anti-inflammatory response via increased blood and lymph flow (6, 8).

I can direct the PEMF towards ‘spot’ areas of your body to help resolve injuries or other damage, or I can provide ‘broad’ area treatment to improve self-reported psychometric measures of sleep, mood, and quality of life (life satisfaction) without adverse effects. That’s why PEMF sessions are often called “cellular exercise” and is popular among biohackers.

PEMF therapy translates to speeding up of the healing process. For chronic pain patients such as osteoarthritis PEMF stimulates the microenvironment and the after effects of treatment sessions are increased range of motion and decreased pain. PEMF may help alleviate the pain of arthritis, exert anti-inflammatory action and helps in bone remodeling.

I use PEMF to improve tendon to bone healing in rotator cuff repair, Achilles tendon injuries and gluteal tendon tears because it improves microcirculation. After 8 minutes of low intensity PEMF it improves microcirculation – meaning the RBC’s stop sticking together (3,4). PEMF has been used to effect osteoblast proliferation and is used for fractures. For all the above conditions I can blend PEMF, chiropractic care, nutrition, and topical hemp or BioFreeze. (3,4,7)

I look forward to helping you PEMF for urinary incontinence, brain support, insomnia, and even depressive disorders as well as all of the above.  

1. Aaron RK, Ciombor DM, Simon BJ. Treatment of nonunions with electric and electromagnetic fields. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2004;419:21–29.

2. Akai M, Hayashi K. Effect of electrical stimulation on musculoskeletal systems; a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Bioelectromagnetics 2002;23:132–143.

3. Pilla AA. Mechanisms of electrochemical phenomena in tissue growth and repair. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 1974;1:227–243.

4. Bassett CA, Pawluk RJ, Pilla AA. Acceleration of fracture repair by electromagnetic fields. A surgically noninvasive method. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1974;238:242–262

5. Mammi GI, Rocchi R, Cadossi R, Massari L, Traina GC. The electrical stimulation of tibial osteotomies double-blind study. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1993;288:246–253.

6. Bruckdorfer R. The basics about nitric oxide. Mol Aspects Med 2008;26:3–31.

7. Diniz P, Soejima K, Ito G. Nitric oxide mediates the effects of pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation on the osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Nitric Oxide 2002;7:18–23.

8. al-Swayeh OA, Clifford RH, del Soldato P, Moore PK. A comparison of the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity of nitroaspirin and aspirin. Br J Pharmacol 2000;129:343–350.

9. Aragona SE, Mereghetti G, Lotti J, Vosa A, Lotti T, Canavesi E. Electromagnetic field in control tissue regeneration, pelvic pain, neuro-inflammation and modulation of non-neuronal cells.J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2017 APR-JUN;31(2 Suppl. 2):219-225.

10. van Belkum SM, Bosker FJ, Kortekaas R, Beersma DG, Schoevers RA. Treatment of depression with low-strength transcranial pulsed electromagnetic fields: A mechanistic point of view. Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2016 Nov 3;71:137-43.

11. Aragona SE, Mereghetti G, Lotti J, Vosa T,  Canavesi E. Electromagnetic field in control tissue regeneration, pelvic pain, neuro-inflammation and modulation of non-neuronal cells. Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2017 APR-JUN;31(2 Suppl. 2):219-225.

Dr. Jeffrey Tucker is the current president of the ACA Rehab Council.

Contact Dr. Tucker at 310-444-9393

More

Hallux valgus – Bunions

Bunion’s consist of a thickened callus, an inflamed bursa and excess bone forming at the side of the first metatarsal head (big toe).

Bunions are diagnosed by the following symptoms:
A bulging bump on the outside of the base of the big toe
Swelling, redness or soreness around the big toe joint
Corns or calluses — often where the first and second toes overlap
Persistent or intermittent pain in the area of the big toe
Restricted movement of the big toe if arthritis affects the toe

My treatments and recommendations
Avoid wearing tight shoes especially high heels with pointy toes. Buy footwear that is wide in the toe box area.
Shoe pads are an option especially if they offer relief.
I teach all of my hallux valgus patients awareness exercises: “Always try to straighten the big toe.” I have them press the big toe into the floor and slide the other four toes and foot laterally until the big toe is as straight as possible. This is how I want the patient to stand all the time.
Stretch the feet and calfs. I am yet to meet a patient with bunions that does not have tight calfs. I have my patients stand with the forefoot on a ½ foam roll (3” high) with the heels on the ground for 2 minutes at a time twice a day. After about two weeks they are able to stand up straighter while doing this stretch. Calf tightness can be a cause of low back pain in and of itself so it is important to take this tightness out of the patient’s body.
Strengthening the involved side glutes, getting the hamstrings length and strength proper, and the peroneus longus strength up to normal is important because it allows the first metatarsal to resist the medially directed component of forces associated with hallux plantarflexion.
Use toe spreaders or a bunion splint especially while sleeping.
Massage CBD (Phyto-Zol) serum into the bunion area two to three times a day.
Shock wave therapy aka pulse wave therapy. I do this directly over the bunion area. This is an effective way to reduce bunion discomfort and even reduce the deformity itself.

Other ways to prevent and ease the pressure and pain caused by bunions include:
Watch your weight – remember, the rest of you is pressing down on your feet when you stand, walk or run.
Taping with Kinesio-tape is very helpful. I bring the big toe into a straight position and tape the toe. I teach the patient how to do this at home on their own.
Cover the bunion with a soft, cushioning, protective moleskin or gel-filled pad.
I check for their footwear and offer off-the-shelf shoe inserts or recommend custom made orthotics.
For the acute flare up I try warm foot soaks, ice packs, whirlpool, more CBD serum, etc.

This protocol has helped many patients avoid surgery.

 

More

Hip pain treatment options

Patients often come see me to get second or third opinions about hip pain. They may have been told by another doctor that they need injections or hip replacement surgery. They tell me that there orthopedic surgeon said “it’s the only way” or “I have bone on bone rubbing.” Nobody wants a surgery that they are unsure of having. The risks, the time out of work and play… I get it!

In the Journal of Medical Internet Research they say (1) “Despite the availability of evidence?based guidelines for conservative treatment of osteoarthritis, management of degenerated joints is often confined to the use of painkillers and waiting for eventual total joint replacement.” There are many treatment options available to you before surgery and we should not just wait it out. If injections or surgery is right for you, I am the first person to suggest it. BUT, I still like to offer non-invasive therapies along with education and possible gentle exercise to do (2).

STEM CELL stimulation is OPTION
If you are middle age or older and enjoying good health but diagnosed with osteoarthritis (degenerative hip disease) in your hip(s) using x-rays or MRI and experience pain, discomfort, and/or stiffness, you will want to examine all treatment options.

Pulse Wave Therapy (Storz, MiracleWave, PiezoWave) is effective to stimulate STEM CELLS
Laser Therapy (Class 3B, Class 4)  is effective in treating hip osteoarthritis pain

PEMF (MagnaWave) is also helpful in cell regeneration and decreasing pain

The combination of the above is helping many patients take surgery and injections off the table.

To schedule an office visit call 310-444-9393

More

Acoustic Wave Therapy – Hip & Groin Pain

Hip and groin pain are among the more common problems I see in my practice.

‘Sports hernia’, sacroiliac joint dysfunction, adductor muscle strain, hip osteoarthritis and impingement syndrome are all common diagnosis patients present with. Before presenting to me some patients have tried cortisone shots, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections, stem cell injection, physical therapy and exercise.

It is not unusual to find the pain or symptoms in the hip and groin pain being referred pain from the lumbar spine, lower abdomen, and pelvis 1, 2, 3. Figuring this out is all part of making the proper diagnosis.

I will sit and talk to my patients and get a good history, provide a quality physical examination, identify pain causing generators, and come up with a working diagnosis.

Here is what the research tells us:
• The pain at the front of the hip and groin pain is commonly associated with osteoarthritis and hip labral tears.
• Rear hip pain is associated with piriformis syndrome, sacroiliac joint dysfunction, lumbar radiculopathy, and less commonly ischiofemoral impingement and vascular claudication.
• Lateral hip pain occurs with greater trochanteric pain syndrome.4
• Patients may also have hip and groin back from a herniated disc without back pain.5
• I often see tight hips that cause low back pain 6

The beneficial effects of Acoustic therapy for the above conditions are often experienced after only 3-6 treatments. Acoustic therapy is safe and non-invasive.
Please call the office at 310-444-9393 for more information.

1 Tan EW, Schon LC. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Bearing Sutures for Tendon Repair and Healing in the Foot and Ankle. Foot Ankle Clin. 2016 Dec;21(4):885-890. doi: 10.1016/j.fcl.2016.07.015.
1 St-Onge E, MacIntyre IG, Galea AM. Multidisciplinary approach to non-surgical management of inguinal disruption in a professional hockey player treated with platelet-rich plasma, manual therapy and exercise: a case report. The Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association. 2015;59(4):390-397.
2. McSweeney SE, Naraghi A, Salonen D, Theodoropoulos J, White LM. Hip and groin pain in the professional athlete. Can Assoc Radiol J. 2012 May;63(2):87-99.
3. Holmich P, Dienst M. Differential diagnosis of hip and groin pain. Symptoms and technique for physical examination. Orthopade. 2006 Jan;35(1):8, 10-5.
4. Wilson JJ, Furukawa M. Evaluation of the patient with hip pain. Am Fam Physician. 2014 Jan 1;89(1):27-34.
5. Oikawa Y et al. Lumbar disc degeneration induces persistent groin pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012 Jan 15;37(2):114-8. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e318210e6b5.
6. Suarez JC, Ely EE, Mutnal AB, Figueroa NM, Klika AK, Patel PD, Barsoum WK. Comprehensive approach to the evaluation of groin pain.J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2013 Sep;21(9):558-70. doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-21-09-558.

More

EPAT Shockwave – Los Angeles

If you’re suffering from a soft tissue ailment or looking for an alternative, holistic approach to pain reduction, and want overall healthy joint aging, EPAT shockwave and laser may be an effective option. Dr. Jeffrey Tucker says “The results from EPAT (shockwave) and laser are promising for acute pain, chronic pain conditions and regenerative medicine.”

Frequently asked questions about EPAT:

Is deep tissue massage similar to EPAT Shockwave? No, EPAT shockwave penetrates much deeper than hands can get. EPAT goes beyond muscles treating the underside of muscles, bones, and joints to work on a deeper level.

EPAT Shock wave sessions usually last thirty minutes! True, they normally take about 20-30 minutes depending on the number of impulses and the number of areas we are intending to apply to a given area.

Some patients describe the EPAT as a ‘Jack hammer’. Why? The overall feeling is a combination of gliding, kneading, percussion, vibration, deep friction massage, and rolling of the soft tissue and joints.

EPAT is often used in combination with other therapies including laser, deep muscle stimulator (DMS) and cupping.

Like most massage, EPAT is traditionally practiced on exposed skin surfaces. You should wear loose, comfortable clothing to ensure the doctor can have skin exposure and be able to move your joints through the full range of motion. During EPAT therapy, ultrasound gel is used on treatment surfaces.

Dr. Tucker’s philosophy treats patients holistically, focusing on physical, mental, nutritional and healthy aging wellness. “I help achieve joint and muscle balance using a blend of modern technology like the Deep Muscle Stimulator (DMS), Laser, EPAT (shock wave) and therapies that have stood the test of time like cupping and transverse friction massage.

“I have every intention of helping patients detect and correct where they may be blocking recovery by mental and physical tension, bad habits, and the poor health they showed up with if that is the case.”

More

Hip & Low Back pain

In a recent study in the journal PMR, (June 2017) a Washington University School of Medicine team found links between the hip and the spine affecting pain and function. The key finding was that hip disease, before it was even evident on an MRI as osteoarthritis, could cause problems in the lower back.The hip was the true disguised pain generator in back pain patients. This is no surprise to me and my patients. Every patient in my office has had a hip evaluation if they present with low back pain. This truly is a case where the science is catching up with what active practitioners have known for years.

What is this research telling us? If you had an MRI of your hip, and nothing presented itself as obvious, then the doctor may chase something in the spine that is not causing the pain.

The link that the researchers are still missing is that tight and immobile hips cause increased dysfunctional motion in the lower lumbar spine and this causes excess rubbing and irritation in the low back.

The same team of researchers, publishing earlier in February 2017 were also able to conclude that physical examination findings indicating hip osteoarthritis (loss of range of motion and acute pain) are common in patients who also have low back pain. A patient presenting with low back pain should be examined for hip osteoarthritis).2

1 Prather H, Cheng A, May KS, Maheshwari V, VanDillen L. Association of Hip Radiograph Findings with Pain and Function in Patients Presenting with Low Back Pain. PM&R. 2017 Jun 16.

2. Prather H, Cheng A, May KS, Maheshwari V, VanDillen L. Hip and Lumbar Spine Physical Examination Findings in People Presenting With Low Back Pain With or Without Lower Extremity Pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2017 Feb 3:1-36. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2017.6567.

More

Is Sockwave therapy and laser therapy the right treatment for damaged discs and bulges?

Both Shockwave and laser help damaged disc and bulges by:

  • Stem cell activation: Stem cells are effective in inhibiting disc degeneration and disc herniation. It’s a pretty complex interplay between the stem cells and the immune system cells but the result can be disc tissue regeneration.
  • Stem cell activation: This will promote regeneration of the outer tissue of the disc and help contain and lessen the bulge (scar tissue formation).
  • Stem cell activation:The increased number of cells to the area brings more oxygen to the damaged disc and accelerates healing by reversing the low-oxygen (degenerative or dying) environment in the spine. Everything heals better and faster with increased oxygen.
  • Stem cell activation reduces and prevents herniation by suppressing the non-healing inflammation.

Office phone 310-444-9393

References: Cunha C, Almeida CR, Almeida MI, Silva AM, Molinos M, Lamas S, Pereira CL, Teixeira GQ, Monteiro AT, Santos SG, Gonçalves RM, Barbosa MA. Systemic Delivery  of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells for In Situ Intervertebral Disc Regeneration. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2016 Oct 11. pii: sctm.2016-0033.

More

Knee Osteoarthritis – Brentwood Chiropractor

  • Arthroscopy Journal 2015 – doctors concluded that PRP injections are a viable treatment for knee osteoarthritis and should be considered in patients with knee osteoarthritis.6 Studies like these add to the accumulating evidence that PRP can halt and reverse meniscus degeneration.7,8
  • J Orthop Res. 2016 – doctors confirm that stem cell therapy stimulates the regeneration of meniscal tissue. Specifically with regard to post-meniscectomy meniscus growth (with stem cells).9 This means we can use the PIEZOWAVE and EnPuls to stimulate regeneration even after surgery.
  • Doctors at the University of Iowa found that stem cells and cartilage cells could be influenced to migrate to the site of “white-zone” where the most difficult meniscus tears are. I use Laser therapy, PiezoWave Pulse Therapy and EnPuls shockwave to do just that!
  • I do think stimulating the tissues with PiezoWave and EnPuls shockwave can promote regeneration and is a promising new strategy in meniscus repair.10
  • Stimulating stem cell based strategies for meniscus tissue is a fundamental role in meniscal regeneration.
  1. Pihl K, Roos EM, Nissen N, JøRgensen U, Schjerning J, Thorlund JB. Over-optimistic patient expectations of recovery and leisure activities after arthroscopic meniscus surgery. Acta Orthop. 2016 Sep 13:1-7.
  2. Brelin AM, Rue JP. Return to Play Following Meniscus Surgery. Clin Sports Med. 2016 Oct;35(4):669-78. doi: 10.1016/j.csm.2016.05.010. Epub 2016 Jul 9. Review.
  3. Noyes FR, Barber-Westin SD. Long-term Survivorship and Function of Meniscus Transplantation. Am J Sports Med. 2016 Sep;44(9):2330-8.
  4. Niu W, Guo W, Han S, Zhu Y, Liu S, Guo Q. Cell-Based Strategies for Meniscus Tissue Engineering. Stem Cells International. 2016;2016:4717184. doi:10.1155/2016/4717184.
  5. Blanke F, Vavken P, Haenle M, von Wehren L, Pagenstert G, Majewski M. Percutaneous injections of Platelet rich plasma for treatment of intrasubstance meniscal lesions. Muscles Ligaments Tendons J. 2015 Oct 20;5(3):162-166.
  6. Campbell KA, Saltzman BM, Mascarenhas R, Khair MM, Verma NN, Bach BR Jr, Cole BJ. A Systematic Review of Overlapping Meta-analyses. Arthroscopy. 2015 Nov;31(11):2213-21. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2015.03.041. Epub 2015 May 29.
  7. Wu CC, Chen WH, Zao B, Lai PL, Lin TC, Lo HY, Shieh YH, Wu CH, Deng WP. Regenerative potentials of platelet-rich plasma enhanced by collagen in retrieving pro-inflammatory cytokine-inhibited chondrogenesis. Biomaterials. 2011 Sep;32(25):5847-54. Epub 2011 May 25.
  8. van Buul GM, et al. Platelet-Rich Plasma Releasate Inhibits Inflammatory Processes in Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes. Am J Sports Med. 2011 Nov;39(11):2362-70. Epub 2011 Aug 19.
  9. Seol D, Zhou C, Brouillette MJ, Song I, Yu Y, Choe HH, Lehman AD, Jang KW, Fredericks DC, Laughlin BJ, Martin JA. Characteristics of meniscus progenitor cells migrated from injured meniscus. J Orthop Res. 2016 Nov 3. doi: 10.1002/jor.23472.
  10. McCrum CL, Vangsness CT. Postmeniscectomy Meniscus Growth With Stem Cells: Where Are We Now? Sports Med Arthrosc. 2015 Sep;23(3):139-42.  PUBMED Meniscus Growth With Stem Cells
More

Shockwave Therapy for Knee Pain

  • Arthroscopy Journal, doctors concluded that PRP injections are a viable treatment for knee osteoarthritis and should be considered in patients with knee osteoarthritis.6 Studies like these add to the accumulating evidence that PRP can halt and reverse meniscus degeneration.7,8
  • J Orthop Res. 2016 Nov 3. doi: 10.1002/jor.23472 they confirm that stem cell therapy stimulates the regeneration of meniscal tissue. Specifically with regard to post-meniscectomy meniscus growth (with stem cells).9 This means we can use the PIEZOWAVE and EnPuls to stimulate regeneration even after surgery.
  • Doctors at the University of Iowa found that stem cells and cartilage cells could be influenced to migrate to the site of “white-zone” where the most difficult meniscus tears are. I use Laser and PiezoWave and EnPuls to do just that!
  • I do think stimulating the tissues with PiezoWave and EnPuls shockwave can promote regeneration and is a promising new strategy in meniscus repair.10
  • Stimulating stem cell based strategies for meniscus tissue is a fundamental role in meniscal regeneration. 11
  1. Campbell KA, Saltzman BM, Mascarenhas R, Khair MM, Verma NN, Bach BR Jr, Cole BJ. A Systematic Review of Overlapping Meta-analyses. Arthroscopy. 2015 Nov;31(11):2213-21. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2015.03.041. Epub 2015 May 29.
  2. Wu CC, Chen WH, Zao B, Lai PL, Lin TC, Lo HY, Shieh YH, Wu CH, Deng WP. Regenerative potentials of platelet-rich plasma enhanced by collagen in retrieving pro-inflammatory cytokine-inhibited chondrogenesis. Biomaterials. 2011 Sep;32(25):5847-54. Epub 2011 May 25.
  3. van Buul GM, et al. Platelet-Rich Plasma Releasate Inhibits Inflammatory Processes in Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes. Am J Sports Med. 2011 Nov;39(11):2362-70. Epub 2011 Aug 19.
  4. Seol D, Zhou C, Brouillette MJ, Song I, Yu Y, Choe HH, Lehman AD, Jang KW, Fredericks DC, Laughlin BJ, Martin JA. Characteristics of meniscus progenitor cells migrated from injured meniscus. J Orthop Res. 2016 Nov 3. doi: 10.1002/jor.23472.
  5. McCrum CL, Vangsness CT. Postmeniscectomy Meniscus Growth With Stem Cells: Where Are We Now? Sports Med Arthrosc. 2015 Sep;23(3):139-42.  PUBMED Meniscus Growth With Stem Cells
More

Meniscus Tears – Research suggests the ‘White Zone’ can heal (Los Angeles Chiropractor)

 

  • FACT: Regeneration of meniscus and cartilage is difficult to heal especially in the ‘white zone’ where there is a lack of blood vessels and therefore deprives the meniscus of healing nutrients and oxygen.
  • FACT: Stem cell injections and PRP injection treatments are in the infancy stages of research. These treatment options are as controversial as surgery.
    • New York Times, Dr. Gordon H. Guyatt, a professor of medicine at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario states: Meniscus surgery is expensive and has potential complications (British Medical Journal even agrees with this).
    • FACT: I want patients to return to sport or leisure activity as fast as possible.
    • Researchers in Denmark have published: “patients undergoing arthroscopic meniscus surgery were too optimistic regarding their recovery time and postoperative participation in leisure activities. This highlights the need for shared decision making which should include giving the patient information on realistic expectations of recovery time and regarding participation in leisure-time activities after meniscal surgery.”1
  • Can PIEZOWAVE Pulse Therapy and ENPULS Radial Shockwave Therapy regrow meniscus tissue? What about stem cell therapy and PRP? Is one more successful at treating meniscal damage? All of these treatments are very promising! I have not seen 80-100% predictable positive clinical outcomes yet with any of these! So far I see stimulation of stem cells (either non-invasive therapy or injections) as promising for meniscus repair and regeneration.4
  • We need more University and Hospital based studies to confirm this trend.
  • Again, everyone agrees that Meniscus injuries remain a significant challenge due to the poor healing potential of the inner avascular zone (the inner portion of the meniscus that lacks a blood supply).
  • I use the non-invasive and less expensive EnPuls and PiezoWave therapy instead of PRP to achieve pain relief and attempt to halt the progression of meniscal damage. More time and research is required to see if this is the way to regenerate tissue.5
  1. Pihl K, Roos EM, Nissen N, JøRgensen U, Schjerning J, Thorlund JB. Over-optimistic patient expectations of recovery and leisure activities after arthroscopic meniscus surgery. Acta Orthop. 2016 Sep 13:1-7.
  2. Brelin AM, Rue JP. Return to Play Following Meniscus Surgery. Clin Sports Med. 2016 Oct;35(4):669-78. doi: 10.1016/j.csm.2016.05.010. Epub 2016 Jul 9. Review.
  3. Noyes FR, Barber-Westin SD. Long-term Survivorship and Function of Meniscus Transplantation. Am J Sports Med. 2016 Sep;44(9):2330-8.
  4. Niu W, Guo W, Han S, Zhu Y, Liu S, Guo Q. Cell-Based Strategies for Meniscus Tissue Engineering. Stem Cells International. 2016;2016:4717184. doi:10.1155/2016/4717184.
  5. Blanke F, Vavken P, Haenle M, von Wehren L, Pagenstert G, Majewski M. Percutaneous injections of Platelet rich plasma for treatment of intrasubstance meniscal lesions. Muscles Ligaments Tendons J. 2015 Oct 20;5(3):162-166.
More