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ANTIOXIDANTS

TYPES OF ANTIOXIDANTS
Chemical
– examples: ascorbic acid, alpha tocopherol
– neutralize free radicals in vitro
– act as reducing agents: become converted to pro-oxidants after donating electrons
– work best as part of network of compounds
– effects lasts from minutes to hours in vivo

Indirect antioxidants
– do not directly reduce oxidized compounds
– typically act as pro-oxidants that upregulate antioxidant enzyme systems
– effect lasts from hours to days

5’ AMP-Activated Kinase (AMPK): Metabolic Master Switch
– major intracellular metabolic sensing enzyme, involved in cellular energy homeostasis
– found in liver, skeletal muscle, brain
– implicated in prevention and/or regulation of metabolic disorders
o obesity
o diabetes
o cardiovascular disease
o fatty liver disease (alcoholic & nonalcoholic)
o cancer

AMPK Activators
– Low ATP; high AMP
– Exercise (muscle contraction)
– Hypoxia/ischemia
– Leptin, adiponectin
– Thyroxine
– Metformin
– Trans-resveratrol
– Quercitin
– Green tea polyphenols (EGCG; theaflavin)
– Alpha lipoic acid
– Curcumin
– Berberine
– Caffeic acid phenethyl ester
– Ginsenoside Rh2

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